When to comment that code March 9, 2023 on Drew DeVault's blog

My software tends to have a surprisingly low number of comments. One of my projects, scdoc, has 25 comments among its 1,133 lines of C code, or 2%, compared to the average of 19%.1 Naturally, I insist that my code is well-written in spite of this divergence from the norm. Allow me to explain.

The philosophy and implementation of code comments varies widely in the industry, and some view comment density as a proxy for code quality.2 I’ll state my views here, but will note that yours may differ and I find that acceptable; I am not here to suggest that your strategy is wrong and I will happily adopt it when I write a patch for your codebase.

Let’s begin with an illustrative example from one of my projects:

// Reads the next entry from an EFI [[FILE_PROTOCOL]] handle of an open
// directory. The return value is statically allocated and will be overwritten
// on the next call.
export fn readdir(dir: *FILE_PROTOCOL) (*FILE_INFO | void | error) = {
	// size(FILE_INFO) plus reserve up to 512 bytes for file name (FAT32
	// maximum, times two for wstr encoding)
	static let buf: [FILE_INFO_SIZE + 512]u8 = [0...];
	const n = read(dir, buf)?;
	if (n == 0) {
	return &buf[0]: *FILE_INFO;

This code illustrates two of my various approaches to writing comments. The first comment is a documentation comment: the intended audience is the consumer of this API. The call-site has access to the following information:

The goal is for the user of this function to gather enough information from these details to correctly utilize this API.

The module in which it resides suggests that this function interacts with the EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface) standard, and the user would be wise to pair a reading of this code (or API) with skimming the relevant standard. Indeed, the strategic naming of the FILE_PROTOCOL and FILE_INFO types (notably written in defiance of the Hare style guide), provide hints to the relevant parts of the EFI specification to read for a complete understanding of this code.

The name of the function is also carefully chosen to carry some weight: it is a reference to the Unix readdir function, which brings with it an intuition about its purpose and usage for programmers familiar with a Unix environment.

The return type also provides hints about the function’s use: it may return either a FILE_INFO pointer, void (nothing), or an error. Without reading the documentation string, and taking the name and return type into account, we might (correctly) surmise that we need to call this function repeatedly to read file details out of a directory until it returns void, indicating that all entries have been processed, handling any errors which might occur along the way.

We have established a lot of information about this function without actually reading the comment; in my philosophy of programming I view this information as a critical means for the author to communicate to the user, and we can lean on it to reduce the need for explicit documentation. Nevertheless, the documentation comment adds something here. The first sentence is a relatively information-sparse summary of the function’s purpose, and mainly exists to tick a box in the Hare style guide.3 The second sentence is the only real reason this comment exists: to clarify an important detail for the user which is not apparent from the function signature, namely the storage semantics associated with the return value.

Let’s now study the second comment’s purpose:

// size(FILE_INFO) plus reserve up to 512 bytes for file name (FAT32
// maximum, times two for wstr encoding)
static let buf: [FILE_INFO_SIZE + 512]u8 = [0...];

This comment exists to explain the use of the magic constant of 512. The audience of this comment is someone reading the implementation of this function. This audience has access to a different context than the user of the function, for instance they are expected to have a more comprehensive knowledge of EFI and are definitely expected to be reading the specification to a much greater degree of detail. We can and should lean on that context to make our comments more concise and useful.

An alternative writing which does not rely on this context, and which in my view is strictly worse, may look like the following:

// The FILE_INFO structure includes the file details plus a variable length
// array for the filename. The underlying filesystem is always FAT32 per the
// EFI specification, which has a maximum filename length of 256 characters. The
// filename is encoded as a wide-string (UCS-2), which encodes two bytes per
// character, and is not NUL-terminated, so we need to reserve up to 512 bytes
// for the filename.
static let buf: [FILE_INFO_SIZE + 512]u8 = [0...];

The target audience of this comment should have a reasonable understanding of EFI. We simply need to clarify that this constant is the FAT32 max filename length, times two to account for the wstr encoding, and our magic constant is sufficiently explained.

Let’s move on to another kind of comment I occasionally write: medium-length prose. These often appear at the start of a function or the start of a file and serve to add context to the implementation, to justify the code’s existence or explain why it works. Another sample:

fn init_pagetables() void = {
	// 0xFFFF0000xxxxxxxx - 0xFFFF0200xxxxxxxx: identity map
	// 0xFFFF0200xxxxxxxx - 0xFFFF0400xxxxxxxx: identity map (dev)
	// 0xFFFF8000xxxxxxxx - 0xFFFF8000xxxxxxxx: kernel image
	// L0[0x000]    => L1_ident
	// L0[0x004]    => L1_devident
	// L1_ident[*]  => 1 GiB identity mappings
	// L0[0x100]    => L1_kernel
	// L1_kernel[0] => L2_kernel
	// L2_kernel[0] => L3_kernel
	// L3_kernel[0] => 4 KiB kernel pages
	L0[0x000] = PT_TABLE | &L1_ident: uintptr | PT_AF;
	L0[0x004] = PT_TABLE | &L1_devident: uintptr | PT_AF;
	L0[0x100] = PT_TABLE | &L1_kernel: uintptr | PT_AF;
	L1_kernel[0] = PT_TABLE | &L2_kernel: uintptr | PT_AF;
	L2_kernel[0] = PT_TABLE | &L3_kernel: uintptr | PT_AF;
	for (let i = 0u64; i < len(L1_ident): u64; i += 1) {
		L1_ident[i] = PT_BLOCK | (i * 0x40000000): uintptr |
	for (let i = 0u64; i < len(L1_devident): u64; i += 1) {
		L1_devident[i] = PT_BLOCK | (i * 0x40000000): uintptr |

This comment shares a trait with the previous example: its purpose, in part, is to justify magic constants. It explains the indices of the arrays by way of the desired address space, and a perceptive reader will notice that 1 GiB = 1073741824 bytes = 0x40000000 bytes.

To fully understand this, we must again consider the intended audience. This is an implementation comment, so the reader is an implementer. They will need to possess some familiarity with the behavior of page tables to be productive in this code, and they likely have the ARM manual up on their second monitor. This comment simply fills in the blanks for an informed reader.

There are two additional kinds of comments I often write: TODO and XXX.

A TODO comment indicates some important implementation deficiency; it must be addressed at some point in the future and generally indicates that the function does not meet its stated interface and is often accompanied by an assertion, or a link to a ticket on the bug tracker, or both.

assert(ep.send == null); // TODO: support multiple senders

This function should support multiple senders, but does not; an assertion here prevents the code from running under conditions it does not yet support and the TODO comment indicates that this should be addressed in the future. The target audience for this comment is someone who brings about these conditions and runs into the assertion failure.

fn memory_empty(mem: *memory) bool = {
	// XXX: This O(n) linked list traversal is bad
	let next = mem.next;
	let pages = 0u;
	for (next != FREELIST_END; pages += 1) {
		const addr = mem.phys + (next * mem::PAGESIZE): uintptr;
		const ptr = mem::phys_tokernel(addr): *uint;
		next = *ptr;
	return pages == mem.pages;

Here we find an example of an XXX comment. This code is correct: it implements the function’s interface perfectly. However, given its expected usage, a performance of O(n) is not great: this function is expected to be used in hot paths. This comment documents the deficiency, and provides a hint to a reader that might be profiling this code in regards to a possible improvement.

One final example:

// Invalidates the TLB for a virtual address.
export fn invalidate(virt: uintptr) void = {
	// TODO: Notify other cores (XXX SMP)

This is an atypical usage of XXX, but one which I still occasionally reach for. Here we have a TODO comment which indicates a case which this code does not consider, but which must be addressed in the future: it will have to raise an IPI to get other cores to invalidate the affected virtual address. However, this is one of many changes which fall under a broader milestone of SMP support, and the “XXX SMP” comment is here to make it easy to grep through the codebase for any places which are known to require attention while implementing SMP support. An XXX comment is often written for the purpose of being easily found with grep.

That sums up most of the common reasons I will write a comment in my software. Each comment is written considering a target audience and the context provided by the code in which it resides, and aims to avoid stating redundant information within these conditions. It’s for this reason that my code is sparse on comments: I find the information outside of the comments equally important and aim to be concise such that a comment is not redundant with information found elsewhere.

Hopefully this post inspired some thought in you, to consider your comments deliberately and to be more aware of your ability to communicate information in other ways. Even if you chose to write your comments more densely than I do, I hope you will take care to communicate well through other mediums in your code as well.

  1. O. Arafat and D. Riehle, “The comment density of open source software code,” 2009 31st International Conference on Software Engineering - Companion Volume, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2009, pp. 195-198, doi: 10.1109/ICSE-COMPANION.2009.5070980. ↩︎

  2. I hold this view weakly, but reverse of the norm: I consider a high comment density a sign that the code quality may be poor. ↩︎

  3. Which states that all exported functions that the module consumer is expected to use should have a comment, and that exported but undocumented symbols are exported to fulfill an implementation detail and not to provide a useful interface. ↩︎

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