sr.ht1 is 100% open source and I encourage people to install it on their own infrastructure, especially if they’ll be sending patches upstream. However, I am equally thrilled to host sr.ht for you on the “official” instance, and most users find this useful because the maintenance burden is non-trivial. Today I’ll give you an idea of what your subscription fee pays for. In this first post on ops at sr.ht, I’ll talk about backups and redundancy. In future posts, I’ll talk about security, high availability, automation, and more.
As sr.ht is still in the alpha phase, high availability has been on the backburner. However, data integrity has always been of paramount importance to me. The very earliest versions of sr.ht, from well before it was even trying to be a software forge, made a point to never lose a single byte of user data. Outages are okay - so long as when service is restored, everything is still there. Over time I’m working to make outages a thing of the past, too, but let’s start with backups.
There are several ways that sr.ht stores data:
- Important data on the filesystem (e.g. bare git repositories)
- Important persistent data in PostgreSQL
- Unimportant ephemeral data in Redis (& caches)
- Miscellaneous filesystem storage, like the operating system
Some of this data is important and kept redundant (PostgreSQL, git repos), and others are unimportant and is not redundant. For example, I store a rendered Markdown cache for git.sr.ht in Redis. If the Redis cluster goes poof, the source Markdown is still available, so I don’t bother backing up Redis. Most services run in a VM and I generally don’t store important data on these - the hosts usually only have one hard drive with no backups and no redundancy. If the host dies, I have to reprovision all of those VMs.
Other data is more important. Consider PostgreSQL, which contains some of the most important data for sr.ht. I have one master PostgreSQL server, a dedicated server in the space I colocate in my home town of Philadelphia. I run sr.ht on this server, but I also use it for a variety of other projects - I maintain many myself, and I volunteer as a sysadmin for more still. This box (named Remilia) has four hard drives configured in a ZRAID (ZFS). I buy these hard drives from a variety of vendors, mostly Western Digital and Seagate, and from different batches - reducing the likelihood that they’ll fail around the same time. ZFS is well-known for it’s excellent design, featureset and for simply keeping your data intact, and I don’t trust any other filesystem with important data. I take ZFS snapshots every 15 minutes and retain them for 30 days. These snapshots are important for correcting the “oh shit, I rm’d something important” mistakes - you can mount them later and see what the filesystem looked like at the time they were taken.
On top of this, the PostgreSQL server is set up with two additional important features: continuous archiving and streaming replication. Continuous archiving has PostgreSQL writing each transaction to log files on disk, which represents a re-playable history of the entire database, and allows you to restore the database to any point in time. This helps with “oh shit, I dropped an important table” mistakes. Streaming replication ships changes to an off-site standby server, in this case set up in my second colocation in San Francisco (the main backup box, which we’ll talk about more shortly). This takes a near real-time backup of the database, and has the advantage of being able to quickly failover to it as the primary database during maintenance and outages (more on this during the upcoming high availability article). Soon I’ll be setting up a second failover server as well, on-site.
So there are multiple layers to this:
- ZFS & zraid prevents disk failure from causing data loss
- ZFS snapshots allows retrieving filesystem-level data from the past
- Continuous archiving allows retrieving database-level data from the past
- Streaming replication prevents datacenter existence failure from causing data loss
Having multiple layers of data redundancy here protects sr.ht from a wide variety of failure modes, and also protects each redundant system from itself - if any of these systems fails, there’s another place to get this data from.
The off-site backup in San Francisco (this box is called Konpaku) has a whopping 52T of storage in two ZFS pools, named “small” (4T) and “large” (48T). The PostgreSQL standby server lives in the small pool, and borg backups live in the large pool. This has the same ZFS snapshotting and retention policy as Remilia, and also has drives sourced from a variety of vendors and batches. Borg is how important filesystem-level data is backed up, for example git repositories on git.sr.ht. Borg is nice enough to compress, encrypt, and deduplicate its backups for us, which I take hourly with a cronjob on the machines which own that data. The retention policy is hourly backups stored for 48 hours, daily backups for 2 weeks, and weekly backups stored indefinitely.
There are two other crucial steps in maintaining a working backup system:
monitoring and testing. The old wisdom is “you don’t have backups until you’ve
tested them”. The simplest monitoring comes from cron - when I provision a new
box, I make sure to set
MAILTO, make sure sendmail works, and set up a
deliberately failing cron entry to ensure I hear about it when it breaks. I also
set up zfs-zed to email me whenever ZFS encounters issues, which also has a test
mode you should use. For testing, I periodically provision private replicas of
sr.ht services from backups and make sure that they work as expected. PostgreSQL
replication is fairly new to my setup, but my intention is to switch the primary
and standby servers on every database upgrade for HA2 purposes, which
conveniently also tests that each standby is up-to-date and still replicating.
To many veteran sysadmins, a lot of this is basic stuff, but it took me a long time to learn how all of this worked and establish a set of best practices for myself. With the rise in popularity of managed ops like AWS and GCP, it seems like ops & sysadmin roles are becoming less common. Some of us still love the sound of a datacenter and the greater level of control you have over your services, and as a bonus my users aren’t worrying about $bigcorp having access to their data.
The next ops thing on my todo list is high availability, which is still in-progress on sr.ht. When it’s done, expect another blog post!
Articles from blogs I follow around the net
This post gives an overview of the recent updates to the Writing an OS in Rust blog and the used libraries and tools. I was very busy with finishing my master's thesis, so I didn't have any to implement any notable changes myself. Thanks to contrib…via Writing an OS in Rust September 9, 2019
Today the Go team is very happy to announce the release of Go 1.13. You can get it from the download page.via The Go Programming Language Blog September 3, 2019
Generated by openring